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Basic Thermodynamics ~ J. Pohl © ~ 2019 | www.ThermoSpokenHere.com (A1040-006) |

The image shows an oil rig at sea which rises 500 feet above sea level and is located 50 "surface" miles from shore. Can the rig be seen from a restaurant atop an 800 foot hotel at the shoreline?

**Prove:** "the rig can be seen," or tell why it cannot be seen.

To get at it, lets assume some important lady at dinner in the resturant sees the gas flare at the rig and screams, "EGad! Polution!" By geometry we calculate the distance then compare it to the stated 50 "surface" miles to sea.

**Calculate:** the ground-sea level distance from the rig to shore.

♦ The exaggerated sketch depicts the very limit of visibility of the rig (C) from the top floor of the hotel (A). The radius of Earth is represented as **R**.

The distance we seek is the length of the Earth-surface arc extending: **E-B-D**.

To proceed toward a solution, the arc lengths, **EB** and **BD** are determined then added. If this length is less than 50 miles, the rig can be seen. Otherwise the rig can not be seen.

The arc length, **s**_{EB} is determined from the arc length formula with the angle, uppercase theta, **θ**:

(1)This is the formula for the length of a circular arc. |

A sketch of the the first triangle, **0AB** shows:

(2) Definition of the cosine of θ. |

Therefore,

(3)Using the inverse cosine function. |

The first part of the arc length (s) [extending from shore (E) to horizon (B)] is determined as:

(4)
Most calculators have an inverse cosine operation. |

Here is a good place to take a look at what we are trying to accomplish. The radius of Earth, **R** (3963 x 5280 feet), is enormous in comparison to the height of the hotel, **H** = 800 feet, (or drill rig). Our sketch is enormously exaggerated to present the physical idea. So the theory of our solution is correct but most calculators will be unable to deal with this discrepancy in numbers.